James R. Sulat has been a director since June 2008 and has served as chairman of the board since December 2008. Since September 2009, Mr. Sulat has served as the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer of Maxygen, Inc., a biopharmaceutical company. Prior to that, he served as the Chief Financial Officer of Memory Pharmaceuticals Corp., a biopharmaceutical company, from February 2008 through September 2008, and previously served as Memory Pharmaceuticals' President and Chief Executive Officer from May 2005 through February 2008 and as a member of the board of directors of Memory Pharmaceuticals from May 2005 through January 2009. Mr. Sulat serves as a director of Maxygen, Inc. and Intercell AG. Mr. Sulat received a B.S. in Administrative Sciences from Yale University, and an M.B.A. and an M.S. in Health Services Administration from Stanford University. Mr. Sulat's qualifications to sit on the board include his experience with public and financial accounting matters, his experience as chief executive officer and chief financial officer at companies within the biopharmaceutical industry and his experience serving on other boards of directors in the biopharmaceutical industry.
John K. Clarke has been a director since April 2002. Mr. Clarke founded Cardinal Partners, a venture capital firm, in 1997, and has served as its Managing General Partner since its founding. He has founded and served as interim Chief Executive Officer of a number of portfolio companies, including Alkermes, Inc., Arris Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Cubist Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and the DNX Corporation. Mr. Clarke is chairman of the board of directors of Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and serves as a member of the board of directors of Verastem, Inc. as well as a number of privately-held healthcare companies. During the last five years, Mr. Clarke also served as a member of the board of directors of Cubist Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Sirtris Pharmaceuticals and Visicu, Inc. He received his B.A. in Biology and Economics from Harvard College and his M.B.A. from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. Mr. Clarke's qualifications to sit on the board include his financial expertise, his years of experience providing advisory services to organizations in the biotechnology industry and his experience serving on other boards of directors in the biopharmaceutical industry.
Bruce Downey has been a director since June 2009. Mr. Downey has served as a Partner at NewSpring Capital, a venture capital firm, since April 2009. Previously, Mr. Downey was Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Barr Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a global specialty pharmaceutical company that operated in more than 30 countries worldwide and was acquired by Teva Pharmaceuticals in 2008. Mr. Downey joined Barr Pharmaceuticals, Inc. in 1993 and was appointed Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer in 1994. Mr. Downey is a member of the board of directors of Cardinal Health, Inc. as well as privately held companies. Mr. Downey graduated with honors from Miami University in 1969 and received his law degree cum laude from Ohio State. Mr. Downey's qualifications to sit on the board include his significant experience serving as a chief executive officer of a global generic pharmaceutical company that also had a substantial brand business and an active biologics research and development program, his years serving as a lawyer in private practice and his experience serving on other boards of directors in the biopharmaceutical industry.
Marsha H. Fanucci has been a director since March 2005. Ms. Fanucci served as Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a biopharmaceutical company, from July 2004 through January 2009, where she was responsible for corporate strategy, treasury, financial planning and reporting and operations. While at Millennium since 2000, she also served as Vice President, Finance and Corporate Strategy and Vice President, Corporate Development. (Millennium was acquired by Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited in May 2008 and is now Millennium: The Takeda Oncology Company). Ms. Fanucci is a member of the board of directors of Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Ironwood Pharmaceuticals, Inc. She received her B.S. in Pharmacy from West Virginia University and her M.B.A. from Northeastern University. Ms. Fanucci's qualifications to sit on the board include her expertise with public and financial accounting matters, including her experience leading financial organizations in biotechnology companies.
Peter Barton Hutt, LL.B., L.L.M., has been a director since June 2001. Mr. Hutt is a senior counsel at the law firm of Covington & Burling LLP and has been an attorney with that firm beginning in 1960. He served as Chief Counsel for the Food and Drug Administration from 1971 through 1975. Mr. Hutt is a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences and teaches a course on Food and Drug Law each Winter Term at Harvard Law School. He co-authored the casebook used to teach Food and Drug Law and has published numerous papers on the subject. Mr. Hutt is a member of the board of directors of Ista Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Xoma Ltd., and several privately-held life sciences companies. During the last five years, Mr. Hutt also served as a member of the board of directors of Celera Genomics, CV Therapeutics, Inc., Favrille, Inc. and Introgen Therapeutics, Inc. Mr. Hutt received his B.A., magna cum laude, from Yale University, his L.L.B. from Harvard University and his L.L.M. from New York University. Mr. Hutt's qualifications to sit on the board include his 50 years of experience and expertise in food and drug regulation, including his service at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and at Covington & Burling, and his experience serving on other boards of directors in the biopharmaceutical industry.
Thomas P. Koestler has been a director since January 2011. Since February 2010, Dr. Koestler has served as Executive Director-Healthcare at Vatera Healthcare Partners, a venture capital company. Prior to joining Vatera Healthcare Partners, Dr. Koestler was Executive Vice President of Schering-Plough Corporation, a pharmaceutical company, and President of Schering-Plough Research Institute, the pharmaceutical research and development arm of Schering-Plough Corporation, which he joined in 2003. Dr. Koestler has also held senior positions at Pharmacia Corporation, Novartis AG, Ortho-McNeil and Bristol-Myers Squibb. Dr. Koestler is also a member of the board of directors of Novo Nordisk A/S and a number of privately-held companies. Dr. Koestler holds a BS degree in biology and genetics from Daemen College and a Ph.D. from the State University of New York, where he studied medicine and pathology. Dr. Koestler's qualifications to sit on the board include his years of senior executive experience in the pharmaceutical industry, including his involvement with over 80 product approvals during his career, including 30 related to new molecular entities.
Bennett M. Shapiro, M.D., has been a director since May 2003. Since June 2006, he has served as a Senior Partner at PureTech Ventures, a venture capital firm, and since August 2003 he has served as a private consultant providing advice to executives. From September 1990 to July 2003, Dr. Shapiro served as an Executive Vice President of Merck & Co., Inc., a research-based pharmaceutical company. Dr. Shapiro is the former head of Worldwide Licensing and External Research at Merck; prior to that he served as the head of Basic and Preclinical Research at Merck and as Chairman of the Biochemistry department at the University of Washington. Dr. Shapiro serves on the board of a number of privately-held biopharmaceutical companies. During the last five years, Dr. Shapiro also served as a member of the board of directors of Celera Genomics. Dr. Shapiro received his B.S. in Chemistry from Dickinson College and his M.D. from Jefferson Medical College. Dr. Shapiro's qualifications to sit on the board include his years of senior executive experience in the pharmaceutical industry, including his expertise in leading research-based organizations, and his experience serving on other boards of directors in the biopharmaceutical industry.
Elizabeth Stoner, M.D., has been a director since October 2007. Since March 2010, Dr. Stoner has been the Chief Development Officer at Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, a biotechnology company. Since October 2007, Dr. Stoner has served as a Managing Director at MPM Capital, a healthcare venture capital firm. Prior to joining MPM Capital, Dr. Stoner had a 22-year career at Merck Research Laboratories. At the time of her retirement from Merck, Dr. Stoner was Senior Vice President of Global Clinical Development Operations with responsibility for the company's clinical development activities in more than 40 countries. Prior to her position at Merck, she was an Assistant Professor of Pediatrics at Cornell University Medical College. Dr. Stoner serves on the board of a privately-held biopharmaceutical company. During the last five years, Dr. Stoner served on the board of Metabasis Therapeutics, Inc., a biopharmaceutical company. Dr. Stoner received her B.S. in Chemistry from Ottawa University, KS, her M.S. in Chemistry from the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and her M.D. from Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Dr. Stoner's qualifications to sit on the board include her more than 20 years of senior executive experience in the pharmaceutical industry, including her expertise in leading clinical development organizations.
Craig A. Wheeler has served as our President and a director since August 2006 and was appointed our Chief Executive Officer effective September 2006. Prior to joining Momenta, Mr. Wheeler served as President of Chiron Biopharmaceuticals, a division of Chiron Corporation, a biotechnology company, from August 2001 until June 2006. Mr. Wheeler has been a member of the board of directors of Avanir Pharmaceuticals, Inc. since September 2005 and has served as chairman of the board since May 2007. Mr. Wheeler received B.S. and M.S. degrees in chemical engineering from Cornell University and an M.B.A. degree from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. Mr. Wheeler's qualifications to sit on the board include his years of senior management experience in the biotechnology industry, including over five years as our President and Chief Executive Officer, and his experience as a principal in a major management consulting firm with a focus on healthcare.